Los sensores del Pololu 3 PI

Los sensores que incorpora son sensores reflexivos QTR-1C. Consisten en un emisor de luz (led) y un receptor (fototransistor). El robot incorpora 5 de estos sensores y se utilizan básicamente para identificar la diferencia de color entre el blanco y el negro. La peculiaridad de la disposición de los sensores del Pololu reside en que la programación realizada (librería de Pololu) indica un valor conjunto de la lectura de los cinco sensores. Inicialmente es necesario realizar una calibración de los sensores para que el programa identifique correctamente los colores blanco y negro.

 

El código de programa que realiza la calibración es el siguiente:

for(counter=0;counter<80;counter++)
{
if(counter < 20 || counter >= 60)
set_motors(40,-40);
else
set_motors(-40,40);
calibrate_line_sensors(IR_EMITTERS_ON);
delay_ms(20);

}
set_motors(0,0);

A continuación se utiliza dentro del programa principal del robot la función read_line() para poder identificar que sensor o dentro de que rango de sensores se encuentra la línea que queremos detectar. La lectura devuelta por esta función se encuentra en un rango de 0 a 4000.

Utiliza la siguiente fórmula para realizar el cálculo:

 

Este rango indica que si el valor es 0 el sensor que detecta está a la izquierda, 2000 en el centro y 4000 a la derecha. Con estos valores podemos saber hacia donde debemos hacer girar los motores para seguir la línea. Estos rangos se pueden subdividir en otros más pequeños para poder ajustar mejor la potencia de los motores y así conseguir mejorar el comportamiento.

 

 

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